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The Legacy of Fairchild Semiconductor
 
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[Recorded Oct 5, 2007] Founded in September 1957 in Palo Alto, California by eight young engineers and scientists from Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation pioneered new products and technologies together with a youthful enthusiasm and manufacturing and marketing techniques that reshaped the semiconductor industry. The planar process developed in early 1959 revolutionized the production of semiconductor devices and continues to enable the manufacture of billion transistor microprocessor and memory chips today. Fairchild was the first manufacturer to introduce high-frequency silicon transistors and practical monolithic integrated circuits to the market. At the peak of its influence in the mid-1960s, as a division of Fairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation, the company was one of the world's largest producers of silicon transistors and controlled over 30 percent of the market for ICs. Fairchild's extraordinary success stimulated an entrepreneurial fervor that gave birth to the phenomenon of Silicon Valley. Including systems and software businesses, the total number of companies in the Bay Area and beyond with Fairchild roots today lies in the thousands. This lecture was presented during a celebration of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the company held at Stanford University and the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California on October 4, 5, and 6, 2007. Introduced by Staff Director of the Semiconductor Special Interest Group of the Museum and Fairchild Alumnus David Laws, the speakers are all Fairchild alumni who went on to make significant contributions to the semiconductor industry. They were asked to explore the lasting impact of Fairchild Semiconductor on Silicon Valley and the world. Wilfred Corrigan earned a BSc in Chemical Engineering from the Imperial College of Science, London, England. After early work at Transitron and Motorola, Corrigan joined Fairchild Semiconductor in 1968. He served as president and chief executive officer of Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation from 1974 until 1979. In 1981 he co-founded ASIC pioneer LSI Logic Corporation where he served as president, CEO, and chairman until 2005. Gordon Moore was born and spent his childhood near San Francisco, California. He earned a PhD in Chemistry and Physics from the California Institute of Technology. He was one of the eight co-founders of Fairchild in 1957. As head of R&D, in 1965 he published an observation on the increase of integrated circuit complexity with time, now known as "Moore's Law" that emerged as one of the driving principles of the semiconductor industry. In 1968 Moore co-founded Intel Corporation with Robert Noyce, became president and CEO in 1975 and held that post until elected chairman and CEO in 1979. He remained CEO until 1987 and was named chairman emeritus in 1997. W. J. (Jerry) Sanders III was born in Chicago. He earned a BS in electrical engineering from Illinois State University and worked at Douglas Aircraft and Motorola before joining Fairchild as a salesman in 1961. He rose to group director of worldwide sales and marketing before leaving to co-found Advanced Micro Devices in 1969. Sanders served as president, CEO. and Chairman of AMD until 2004. Moderator Floyd Kvamme was an early Fairchild marketing manager, vice president of marketing at National Semiconductor, and executive vice president of Sales and Marketing for Apple Computer. He is a partner emeritus at the venture capital firm of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and co-chair of the president's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. More information on the history of Fairchild Semiconductor can be found at: www.computerhistory.org/semiconductor/ Catalog Number: 102695095 Lot Number: X4933.2009
Fairchild Briefing on Integrated Circuits
 
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[Recorded: October, 1967] This half hour color promotional/educational film on the integrated circuit was produced and sponsored by Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation and first shown on television on October 11, 1967. In the film, Dr. Harry Sello and Dr. Jim Angell describe the integrated circuit (IC), discuss its design and development process, and offer examples of late 1960s uses of IC technology. Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation was one of the most influential early high-tech companies. Founded in Palo Alto California in 1957 by eight scientists and engineers from Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation was funded by Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corporation of Syossett, New York. Rapidly establishing itself as a technology innovator based on its invention of the planar manufacturing process in 1959, the company developed the first monolithic integrated circuit, the first CMOS device, and numerous other technical and business innovations. French oil field services company Schlumberger Limited purchased Fairchild in 1979 and sold a much weakened business to National Semiconductor in 1987. In 1997 National divested a group, formed as the present Fairchild Semiconductor, in a leveraged buy-out. The company re-emerged as a public entity based in South Portland, Maine in 1999 under the corporate name Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. Fairchild Semiconductor presented its new products and technologies with an entrepreneurial style, and its early manufacturing and marketing techniques helped give Californias Santa Clara County a new name: Silicon Valley. It was one of the early forerunners of what would become a worldwide high-tech industry, as evidenced in this short promotional film. Catalog Number: 102651800 Lot Number: X3929.2007
Views: 169053 Computer History Museum
The Rise of Silicon Valley: Shockley Labs to Fairchild
 
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[Recorded Feb 27, 2006] On February 13, 1956, co-inventor of the transistor William Shockley formally announced the establishment of Shockley Labs, Silicon Valley's first semiconductor company. In their modest Quonset hut laboratory on San Antonio Avenue in Mountain View, California Shockley's hand-picked team of some of the nation's brightest young scientists and engineers developed innovative technologies and ideas that forever changed the way we live, work and play. This lecture celebrates the 50th anniversary of this pivotal event in the history of Silicon Valley. Technology historian Michael Riordan is joined by early Shockley employees and associates Jim Gibbons, Jay Last, Hans Queisser, and Harry Sello in this lecture and panel discussion. Catalog Number: 102695088 Lot Number: X4923.2009
Read and Understood: The Fairchild Notebooks
 
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The Fairchild Patent and Laboratory Notebooks predate the integrated circuit. The work described in them revolutionized the science and manufacturing of microelectronics and drove the explosive growth of the region we now know as Silicon Valley. Fairchild was founded by Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, Jean Hoerni, Julius Blank, Eugene Kleiner, Victor Grinich, Jay Last, and Sheldon Roberts. The history-making contributions of these entrepreneurs included inventing modern semiconductor manufacturing technology (the planar process); building the first practical integrated circuits; inventing low power CMOS technology that enables today's portable digital devices; and pioneering the development of semiconductor memory. All of these breakthroughs and many others critical to our modern technological society grew from ideas written in these notebooks from 1957 to the 1980s. Thanks to Texas Instruments, which donated the Notebooks in 2012, the Computer History Museum is excited to continue preserving the heritage of Fairchild Semiconductor and its extraordinary founders. CHM encourages monetary donations to continue their work preserving and providing access to the Fairchild Notebooks, you can learn more at http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/fairchild/ Catalog Number: 102740135 Lot Number: X6772.2013
The Impact of Integrated Circuits, lecture by Robert Noyce
 
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Recorded: May 11, 1984 Robert Noyce is credited with Jack Kilby for the invention of the integrated circuit and co-founded both Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel. In this 1984 lecture, Robert Noyce reviews the development of the integrated circuit from its infancy in the 1950s to the early-1980s as well as its impact on technology and society. Noyce discusses the innovations in transistors that lead to the creation of the integrated circuit. Next, Robert Noyce talks about the technical challenges of building increasingly more compact and more powerful semiconductors as well as the overall effects of Moore's Law. Finally, Noyce looks ahead to the future of semiconductor development that was uncertain at the time of this lecture, but is now in our past. Robert N. Noyce was born in Burlington, Iowa and grew up in Grinnell, Iowa. A physics major at Grinnell College, he graduated with a PhD in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1953. William Shockley hired him from Philco Corporation to work at Shockley Semiconductor Laboratories in 1956. With eight other employees he left to found Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1957. As general manager of the Fairchild semiconductor operation and a vice president of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, he presided over a decade of innovation in semiconductor technology including co-invention of the integrated circuit. In 1968 Noyce co-founded Intel Corporation with Gordon Moore where he served as President until 1975 when he became Chairman of the Board. He spent much of his later career working to improve the international competitiveness of American industry, including founding and later becoming chairman of the Semiconductor Industry Association. In 1988 Noyce took charge of Sematech, a consortium of semiconductor manufacturers working together and with the United States government. He held 16 patents on semiconductor methods, devices, and structures and numerous awards and honors including the National Medal of Science. Catalog Number: 102703196
Oral History of Charlie Sporck
 
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Interviewed by Floyd Kvamme, on 2014-11-21 in Mountain View, CA, X7310.2015 © Computer History Museum Charles Sporck grew up in Saranac NY where his father was a cab driver. Under the tutelage of his father and a neighbor, Charlie became and expert auto mechanic. After serving in the Army, he pursued a degree in Mechanical engineering at Cornell University. While there, he pursued a degree in mechanical engineering. The University had a work-study (coop) program whereby he would periodically spend 3 months working at one of the General Electric plants around the country, getting hands on experience with real world jobs. In fact, upon graduation in 1950, Sporck went to work for GE for 9 years. He eventually tired of the large company challenges and wanted to work in a different kind of corporate environment. He saw an ad for a production manager at Fairchild Semiconductor in Mt. View CA. He applied, was interviewed in NY for the job, and made his way to California to assume the position. Although he knew nothing about semiconductors at the time, he had plenty of manufacturing and management experience and rose quickly though the ranks. He made a number of important contributions to Fairchild, including the establishment of the first overseas test and assembly operation in the semiconductor industry. While at Fairchild he rose to the position of General Manager. However in 1967, he decided to leave Fairchild and take the reins of a struggling company called National Semiconductor. He served as CEO of National until 1991, at which point he retired. This oral history is an important insight into the early days of the semiconductor industry and how it dealt with the many internal and external challenges faced by that industry as it grew. Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot Number: X7310.2015 Catalog Number: 102740001
The Forces That Led to the Atanasoff-Berry Electronic Computer, lecture by John Atanasoff
 
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Recorded: November 11, 1980; b/w One night in the late 1930s in a bar on the Illinois-Iowa border, John Vincent Atanasoff, a professor of physics at Iowa State University, after a frustrating day performing tedious mathematical calculations in his lab, hit on the idea that the binary number system and electronic switches, combined with an array of capacitors on a moving drum to serve as memory, could yield a computing machine that would make his life and the lives of other similarly burdened scientists easier. Then he went back and built the machine. It worked. The whole world changed. Why don't we know the name of John Atanasoff as well as we know those of Alan Turing and John von Neumann? Atanasoff never secured a patent for his early device, and a number of the concepts he pioneered were incorporated into the breakthrough ENIAC computer that evolved into the legendary UNIVAC. But in 1973 a court declared that the patent on the Sperry Rand UNIVAC device was invalid, opening the intellectual property gates to the computer revolution. In 1980, Dr. John Atanasoff gave a lecture at the Digital Computer Museum in Massachusetts (a forerunner of the Computer History Museum). In this lecture (introduced by Gordon Bell) Dr. Atanasoff discusses his life, the events that lead to his breakthroughs in computing and the design of the Atanasoff--Berry Computer. Lot Number: X6118.2011 Catalog Number: 102694989
CHM Live I Tomorrow’s Computers: More Moore?
 
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[Recorded August 15, 2018] A single iPhone today has more power than the NASA computer that took astronauts to the moon. A smartwatch has more memory than computers that used to fill an entire room. So how did we get here? In 1965, Intel and Fairchild Semiconductor cofounder Gordon Moore predicted that the number of electronic components squeezed onto an integrated circuit will double each year. This bold observation, now widely known as Moore’s Law, has not only resulted in smaller, faster, and cheaper computer chips, but has also enabled the creation of life-changing technologies, from smartphones to spreadsheets. When Moore made his prediction, there were about 30 components on a chip and transistors cost about $8 .Today, billions of transistors fit on a chip the size of your fingernail and transistors cost a mere billionth of a penny. However, computing companies have already reported that the rate of acceleration Moore predicted is slowing. In a 2015 interview with IEEE Spectrum, Moore himself predicted that we are approaching the limits of his observation. Could Moore’s Law truly come to an end and what could this mean for the future of technological innovation? Center for Software History Director David C. Brock leads a conversation with Intel Senior Fellow and Director of Process Architecture and Integration Mark Bohr and Director of Microsystems Technology Office at DARPA William Chappell about the status of Moore’s Law, the limits of silicon, and the emerging alternative technologies that will shape the future of computing. The event was preceded by the unveiling by IEEE 2017 President Karen Bartleson of an IEEE Milestone bronze plaque for Moore's Law. Lot number: X8746.2019 Catalog number: 102738866
Oral History of Bob Dobkin
 
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Interviewed by David Laws, on June 16, 2014 in Mountain View, California, X7202.2014 © Computer History Museum Robert C. Dobkin (Bob) studied Electrical Engineering at MIT. After early employment at GTE Defense Systems, Philadelphia, PA and analog module manufacturer Philbrick Nexus, Boston, MA in 1969 he joined National Semiconductor, Santa Clara, CA to work for Bob Widlar designing linear (analog) integrated circuits. After rising to Director of Advanced Circuit Development at National, in 1981 he cofounded Linear Technology Inc., Milpitas, CA where he served as Vice President of Engineering and as Chief Technical Officer since 1999. This oral history focuses on Mr. Dobkin’s role in establishing the product design and development capability at Linear Technology and the contribution of this activity to the success of the company. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102739949 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Catalog Number: 102739948 Lot Number: X7202.2014
In Your Defense: The SAGE System
 
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The SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) System, was designed and built in the 1950s to defend against the threat of Soviet bombers attacking the continental United States. The system was much influenced by the design of MIT's Whirlwind II computer system (which was never completed). IBM designed and built the AN/FSQ-7 computer, the heart of the SAGE program, with companies such as Western Electric (who produced In Your Defense), The Mitre Corporation and System Development Corporation were also major contractors on the project. There were more than twenty SAGE installations located across North America linking hundreds of radar stations, Air Force fighter wings, and missle defense sites in the first large-scale computer communications network. The SAGE network was decentralized and would allow a unit to continue operation even if other sites were disabled. As the Soviet attack threat shifted from long-range bombers to nuclear missles in the 1960's, the SAGE system became less strategic. However, parts of the system continued operation into the early 1980's. This film explains the national security threats of the 1950's and 60's that SAGE was built to defend against, shows the SAGE computer and network in operation and simulates how SAGE would react to an attack on the United States. Catalog Number: 102651595
Views: 206732 Computer History Museum
Electronic Component Search Engine | Loadparts Professional
 
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Electronic Components Search Engine for Purchasers/Buyers. visit http://www.loadparts.com to source hard-to-find electronic components and datasheets in seconds!
Views: 11170 Loadparts
Intel Crush Panel
 
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Moderated by Dane Elliot and Rosemary Remacle, on 2013-10-14 in Mountain View, California, X6984.2014 © Computer History Museum This panel discusses all aspects of the famous Intel “Crush” campaign which unfolded in 1980. In late 1979, Intel realized that it was losing its image and market share leadership in microprocessors. This was a make or break time for the company and when the alert came from the field as to the dire state of things, the top management organized a full court press across the entire company to win back their leadership position. A team of nine executives, five of whom are included on this panel, spent the next year driving towards a goal of 2,000 design wins for the 8086 microprocessor. It seemed like an insurmountable goal, but with sales, marketing, engineering and the entire executive staff driving in one direction, they were able to reestablish Intel’s leadership position and surpass the goal with 2300 design wins. All panel members recalled that year as being one of most remarkable, energizing, rewarding, and fun years of their entire careers. The Crush campaign is one of the most remarkable and frequently taught lessons in business management and marketing even to this day. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102746836 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot Number: X6984.2014 Catalog Number: 102746836
Oral History of Gordon Moore
 
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[Recorded January 25, 2008] Gordon Moore, co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor, co-founder of Intel and Chairman Emeritus of the company talks about the evolution of manufacturing equipment from in-house development by semiconductor vendors to commercial suppliers specializing in specific technology areas including diffusion, epitaxy and photolithography. He discusses the impact of business cycles on both the device and equipment suppliers, on the early applications of integrated circuits, and on the unexpected durability of Moore's Law. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102658233. Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Catalog Number: 102658206 Lot Number: X4427.2008
IBM STRETCH: A Technology Link Between Yesterday & Tomorrow
 
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[1981] IBM's STRETCH program for the Government's Los Alamos lab, later named the IBM 7030 when sold commercially, was IBM's audacious gamble at creating the world's most advanced computing system: about 100 times faster than the most advanced computer working today, according to then IBM chairman Tom Watson, Jr. Design of the IBM STRETCH began in the summer of 1956, with a project team that eventually grew to 300 by 1959. When introduced, the STRETCH was considered a failure within IBM as it did not meet advertised expectations: though it was indeed the fastest computer then available, it was only 30 to 40 times faster than other systems (not 100 times as advertised). The Success of STRETCH: Even though initial commercial expectations were not fully met, the technical, manufacturing, and managerial experience that came from creating STRETCH fed directly into other IBM projects, including its later System/360 - the single most successful family of computers (by revenue) of all time. Concepts pioneered for STRETCH are now used in the world's most advanced microprocessors. These include: - Multiprogramming, enabling a computer to juggle more than one job at a time - Memory protection, preventing unauthorized memory access - Memory interleaving, breaking up memory into chunks for much higher bandwidth - Pipelining, lining up instructions in a queue, so that the computer doesn't have to wait between operations This historic film was produced in 1981 by Brigham Young University to document the story and technical features of the IBM 7030 (STRETCH) System as well as the University's accomplishments using the system. The film was donated to the Computer History Museum along with the University's Stretch system when it was decommissioned. Catalog Number: 102651558 (U-Matic master); 102651560 (Betacam SP preservation copy)
Building the Future: The Planar Integrated Circuit
 
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[Recorded: May 8, 2009] The solid circuits built originally by Jack Kilby established that all the components required to make general-purpose electronic circuits could be fabricated using a common semiconductor material. However, their hand-wired interconnections made them difficult and expensive to produce in high volume. Seeking to solve reliability problems with transistors at Fairchild Semiconductor, co-founder Jean Hoerni invented a new manufacturing approach: the planar process. Fairchilds Director of R & D, Robert Noyce, realized that the Hoernis process would allow interconnecting multiple transistors on one chip in a batch process that also made them more reliable and lower in cost. The planar integrated circuit, first created by Jay Lasts team at Fairchild, remains the basis of the modern semiconductor industry and ranks with the printing press, the steam engine, and wireless communications in terms of global social impact. In this lecture, four speakers describe the personal, technical, and business stories associated with bringing Fairchild Micrologic, the first planar integrated circuit family, to market: Christophe Lécuyer, author of Making Silicon Valley, on Jean Hoerni and his development of the planar process. Leslie Berlin, author of the biography of Robert Noyce The Man Behind the Microchip, on Noyce and his conception of the planar integrated circuit. Gordon E. Moore, Fairchild and Intel co-founder and director of R&D on the early days of the industry and the background to the contributions of Hoerni and Noyce. Jay T. Last, Fairchild co-founder and leader of the Micrologic team on the creative efforts required to turn Noyces concept into a working product. The lecture is moderated by David Brock, a Senior Research Fellow at the Chemical Heritage Foundation Catalog Number: 102695009 Lot Number: X5315.2009
Oral History of John East
 
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Interviewed by David Laws and Jesse H. Jenkins, on 2016-08-08 in Mountain View, California, X7882.2017 © Computer History Museum John C. East was raised and educated in Merced, California and graduated with a BS in Electrical Engineering and an MBA from the University of California, Berkeley. He joined Fairchild Semiconductor in Mountain View as a product engineer in 1968 during the transition of the company to the leadership of Lester Hogan. He moved to Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), Sunnyvale in 1979 and served in engineering management positions for 10 years, including as senior vice president responsible for the Logic Products Group. Mr. East joined programmable logic manufacturer Actel Corporation as Chief Executive Officer and President in 1988 and remained in this role until retiring in 2010. He has served on the board of directors of public and private technology companies including Adaptec, Pericom and Zehntel and as an advisor to the Board of Regents of U.C. Berkeley. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102717179 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot Number: X7882.2017 Catalog Number: 102717180
Oral History of Pierre Lamond
 
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Interviewed by Doug Fairbairn and Marguerite Gong Hancock on 2017-06-30 in Mountain View, CA X8254.2017 © Computer History Museum This oral history track’s Pierre Lamond’s life and career from Paris in 1930, where he was born, through multiple companies and venture capital firms in Silicon Valley. He developed an early interest in electronics listening to “Radio France Libre” broadcast from London during WWII. He served in the French Army for a period in the 1950’s. During the early 1950’s, he taught himself about solid state devices and eventually found a job at Transitron in Boston. He went to work there in October 1957 After several years, he became disenchanted with Transitron, and moved on to Fairchild Semiconductor in 1961, where he spent much of his time working in R&D under Gordon Moore. In 1967, he joined with Charlie Sporck to move over to National Semiconductor. He took a detour to become CEO of Coherent Radiation in 1976 and then to Advent in Boston, but he eventually returned to National in 1978. The next major career step was to move into venture capital in 1982, at which time he joined Don Valentine, an old Fairchild colleague, at Sequoia Capital. Since then, Lamond has remained active in venture investing with a variety of firms, including Khosla Ventures. As of 2017, he continues to be an active investor in several companies. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102738291 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot number: X8254.2017 Catalog number: 102738292
Oral History of Gene Carter
 
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Interviewed by Douglas Fairbairn, on 2014-11-10 in Mountain View, California, X7271.2015 © Computer History Museum Gene Carter spent his early childhood years in South Dakota before moving to Missouri at age 10. His first “love” was music and he played piano in a dance band starting at age 15. After dropping out of junior college after one semester, he developed in interest in electronics and enrolled in a radio and TV repair correspondence course. In the mid-1950’s he was drafted and served in the Navy as a Second Class Electricians mate. After leaving the service, he enrolled the Milwaukee School of Engineering in 1958. Graduating in just 15 months, Gene took a job evaluating semiconductor components for the Atomic Energy Commission in Albuquerque, NM. From there he moved on to Fairchild and National Semiconductor, where he eventually headed the microprocessor group. When Carter realized the potential of microprocessors in fueling a personal computer revolution, he proposed that National get into that business in 1976. When they refused, he quit his job and joined Apple as its first sales person in April 1977, employee #14. He set up Apple’s sales channels, proposed the first Apple retail stores, and made numerous other contributions to Apple’s success. After leaving Apple in 1984, he helped start Productivity Software to develop a Macintosh version of AppleWorks. This was later sold to Microsoft. Since then Gene has served on the Board of Adobe and made other investments. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102739971 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot Number: X7271.2015 Catalog Number: 102739971
Gordon Moore and Arthur Rock Oral History Panel
 
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Moderated by John Hollar and Doug Fairbairn, on 2014-07-09 in Mountain View, California, X7227.2015 © Computer History Museum Gordon Moore and Arthur Rock, two of the most storied and well documented icons of Silicon Valley sit down for the first time ever for a joint interview. Arthur Rock is one of the very first venture capitalists in the US, making investments in the technology industry starting in the early 1950’s. He is well known for being the initial investor in Fairchild Semiconductor, Intel, Apple Computer and many other elite Silicon Valley companies. His goal has always been to invest in the best people, focus on building strong companies, and reaping the rewards when successful. Gordon Moore was originally recruited to work for William Shockley at Shockley Semiconductor. He was one of the “traitorous 8” who left to found Fairchild, and in 1968, he joined Bob Noyce in founding Intel. His long and successful career at Intel, and his formulation of “Moore’s Law” has etched Gordon’s name deeply in Silicon Valley history. In this joint interview, Rock shares his remembrances of the early days of venture investing, how he got involved, how he chose companies to back, etc. When Gordon joined the discussion, the focus shifted to their respective roles in founding Fairchild and Intel, how they worked together, and their memories of the early days, and critical decisions around the financing and early days of Intel. Interviewed by John Hollar and Doug Fairbairn, on July 9, 2014 in Mountain View, California Lot Number: X7227.2015 Catalog Number: 102739934 © Computer History Museum Visit http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102739934 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot Number: X7227.2015 Catalog Number: 102739934
Intel 4004 Microprocessor 35th Anniversary
 
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[Recorded Nov 13, 2006] The Computer History Museum and the Intel Museum mark the 35th anniversary of one of the most important products in technology history. Introduced in November 1971, the Intel® 4004 microprocessor was an early and significant commercial product to embody computer architecture within a silicon device. And it started an electronics revolution that changed our world. There were no customer-programmable microprocessors on the market before the 4004. It was the first and it was the enabling technology that propelled software into the limelight as a key player in the world of digital electronics design. Intel, which had been making memory chips, used the 4004 as a technical and marketing launch pad to develop an expertise in microprocessors that, in quick time, made it a market leader. This strategy allowed it to emerge as the most influential designer and producer of microprocessors—the engine of the information age—for over three decades. In celebration of this milestone anniversary and the November 15, 2006 opening of Intel Museum's new exhibit entitled, "The Intel 4004 Microprocessor ," Intel 4004 designers Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin take center stage with an historical perspective on the evolution of the 4004, from a special-order from Japanese calculator manufacturer Busicom, to a mass-produced device. Additionally, Tim McNerney, who assembled and led a talented team of engineers and designers to create the Intel 4004 35th anniversary exhibit with the Intel Museum and the Intel Corporate Archives, speaks at the conclusion of the panel. He addresses the process of reverse-engineering of the Intel 4004 schematics and the Busicom141-PF calculator ROM's that led his team to uncover elegantly crafted layers of a computational system that makes optimal use of hardware and software. This special anniversary program was moderated by industry veteran and Intel alum, Dave House. Catalog Number: 102695057 Lot Number: X4793.2009
Oral History of Steve Zelencik
 
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Interviewed by David Laws, on 2016-11-15 in Mountain View, CA, X8015.2017 © Computer History Museum Stephen Zelencik received his BSEE from Purdue University in August 1960. After working for Amphenol-Borg and Fairchild Semiconductor in the area of sales and marketing, he joined Advanced Micro Devices Inc. (AMD) in 1979. He served in roles as Senior Vice President of Sales and Marketing, Chief Marketing Officer, and an Officer of AMD in Sunnyvale, CA until his retirement in 2002. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102717247 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot Number: X8015.2017 Catalog Number: 102717248
Oral History of David Fullagar
 
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Interviewed by David Laws, on September 9th, 2014 in Mountain View, California, X7263.2015 © Computer History Museum David Fullagar earned a MSEE from Cambridge University, England in 1963. He worked for Ferranti in Edinburg, Scotland and in 1965 emigrated to the US to join Transitron. After moving to the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory in Palo Alto in 1966 to develop linear (analog) integrated circuits, he designed what became the industry's best selling linear IC, the µA741 operational amplifier. Recruited by Jean Hoerni to Intersil in 1969 as the company's first linear designer, Fullagar went on to manage the European operation and later became vice president of R&D. Together with Jack Gifford and Fred Beck, he co-founded Maxim Integrated Products in 1983 where he served as vice president of R&D and Applications until his retirement in 1999. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102739974 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection.
Secret History of Silicon Valley
 
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[Recorded: November 20, 2008] Today, Silicon Valley is known around the world as a fount of technology innovation and development fueled by private venture capital and peopled by fabled entrepreneurs. But it wasn't always so. Unbeknownst to even seasoned inhabitants, today's Silicon Valley had its start in government secrecy and wartime urgency. In this lecture, renowned serial entrepreneur Steve Blank presents how the roots of Silicon Valley sprang not from the later development of the silicon semiconductor but instead from the earlier technology duel over the skies of Germany and secret efforts around (and over) the Soviet Union. World War II, the Cold War and one Stanford professor set the stage for the creation and explosive growth of entrepreneurship in Silicon Valley. The world was forever changed when the Defense Department, CIA and the National Security Agency acted like today's venture capitalists funding this first wave of entrepreneurship. Steve Blank shows how these groundbreaking early advances lead up to the high-octane, venture capital fueled Silicon Valley we know today. Catalog Number: 102695046 Lot Number: X5082.2009
Views: 354034 Computer History Museum
Fairchild Channel F - JCPenny commercial
 
00:29
JCPenny TV ad for the world's first home programmable video game system - Fairchild Semiconductor's Channel F, or Video Entertainment System (VES). It was designed by renowned hardware engineer Jerry Lawson. Only a quarter of a million units were sold over its lifetime, and a total of 27 cartridges were released, plus one homebrew (Pac-Man).
Views: 5248 ScottithGames
Oral History of Marv Rudin
 
02:31:19
Interviewed by David Laws on 2017-04-14 in Mountain View, CA, X8162.2017 © Computer History Museum Marvin Rudin was born and raised in the Los Angeles area. After service in the US Navy, he graduated in 1949 with a BS in Engineering from Caltech and worked in engineering and management positions in California and Florida, including at Ford Aeronutronic, Hughes Ground Systems, RCA and Radiation Inc. In 1966 he was recruited by Gordon Moore to join the Fairchild Semiconductor R&D Laboratory in Palo Alto to manage the Linear Integrated Circuit design group. With funding from Bourns Inc. in 1969, together with Garth Wilson he co-founded pioneering analog IC company Precision Monolithics. Inc. in Santa Clara, CA. Rudin served as CEO and chief marketing officer of PMI until 1974. He later worked as a management consultant and developed and marketed consumer electronic timing devices and accessories. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102738239 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection. Lot number: X8162.2017 Catalog number: 102738240
An Evening with Legendary Venture Capitalist Arthur Rock
 
01:10:04
[Recorded May 1, 2007] A 1951 graduate of Harvard Business School, Arthur Rock began his career as a security analyst in New York City before joining the corporate finance department of Hayden, Stone & Co. In 1957 he worked with Alfred "Bud" Coyle to raise financing from Sherman Fairchild to found Fairchild Semiconductor, the company that established Silicon Valley as a world center of innovation in integrated circuit technology. Mr. Rock moved to California in 1961 and formed a partnership with Tommy Davis. Together they invested $3 million and returned $100 million to their investors. After establishing his own firm, Arthur Rock & Co in 1968, he worked with Fairchild co-founders Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce to launch Intel Corporation, the largest, and by many measures, the most successful semiconductor company in the world today. He notes that "It was one of the few times that I helped start a company that I absolutely knew in my own mind was going to be a big success. I raised the money just on the telephone in something like two days." Arthur Rock served as Intel's first Chairman of the Board and Chairman of the Executive Committee. Based on this experience he has proclaimed Rock's Law, a corollary to Moore's Law, which says that "the cost of capital equipment to build semiconductors will double every four years." Mr. Rock also invested in and held early stage board positions at pioneering scientific computing company, Scientific Data Systems; at Teledyne, which grew into one of the most successful technology conglomerates in the history of American business, and at Apple Computer. He has contributed to the local community by supporting the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the San Francisco Opera, and the California Institute of Technology. In 2003 he donated $25 Million to establish the Arthur Rock Center for Entrepreneurship at Harvard Business School. Professor of Business Administration Howard H. Stevenson says "Arthur Rock is part of the history of American business and entrepreneurship. Catalog Number: 102703154 Lot Number: X4795.2009
Morris Chang, in conversation with Jen-Hsun Huang
 
01:31:41
[Recorded Oct 17, 2007] A rare and fascinating conversation with one of the most innovative semiconductor pioneers and esteemed business leaders of our time. Born in Ningbo (Zhejiang province), China, in 1931, Dr. Morris Chang is the founding chairman of the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd. (TSMC), a revolutionary enterprise he founded in 1987. TSMC is a dedicated silicon foundry, an independent factory available to anyone for producing integrated circuits. Using this approach, both entrepreneurs and established semiconductor companies could avoid having to build their own semiconductor factories and focus instead on circuit features and system-level product design as the source of value. From 1958 to 1983, Chang worked at Texas Instruments (TI), rising to group vice president for its worldwide semiconductor business. Under Chang's leadership, TI emerged as the world's leading producer of integrated circuits. During his tenure the company also pioneered high-volume production of consumer products including calculators, digital watches, and the popular "Speak & Spell" electronic toy. In 1983, Chang left TI to become president and chief operating officer at General Instrument Corporation. After a year at General Instrument, Chang was recruited by the Taiwanese government to spearhead that country's industrial research organization, the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). While there, he focused on issues relating to using technology to advance Taiwan's larger social and economic goals. It was in this capacity that Chang founded TSMC. In 1998, Chang was named by Business Week magazine as one of the Top 25 Managers of the Year and one of the Stars of Asia. In 2000, he received the IEEE Robert N. Noyce Award for exceptional contributions to the microelectronics industry. In 2005, he won the Nikkei Asia Prize for Regional Growth. On October 16, 2007, Chang will be inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum. Chang is a Life Member Emeritus of MIT Corporation, a member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, and serves on the advisory boards of the New York Stock Exchange, Stanford University, and the University of California at Berkeley. Chang holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from M.I.T. (1952, 1953), and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Stanford University (1964). He also holds honorary doctorates from seven universities. This talk was with Jen-Hsun Huang, co-founder, president and CEO of NVIDIA Corporation. Catalog Number: 102702700 Lot Number: X4614.2008
Programmable Logic: Computing Bit by Bit
 
55:51
[Recorded: July 22, 2009] The introduction of the first commercial programmable logic devices (PLD) in the mid-1970s opened the door to a host of applications including telecommunications, audio and video broadcasting and storage where the combination of performance, cost and power efficiency are particularly important. Programmable logic blurs the line between software and hardware. These chips contain a program in its memory that allows them to be re-programmed. That sounds like software. But the program creates logic gates and wires connecting them. That sounds like hardware. Performance improvement gained by using programmable logic instead of microprocessors can be a factor of one hundred, with comparable power reduction to match. But today we don't see programmable logic computers. Or at least, we don't know them when we see them. Do we need new definitions and new dividing lines? In this lecture and Q&A session, Steve Trimberger, holder of over 150 PLD patents and Xilinx Fellow, discusses the challenges and key milestones in the development of programmable logic and its impact on computing history. He outlines the successes and failures of configurable computing, and discusses PLDs prospects for the future. Catalog Number: 102703033 Lot Number: X5463.2010
Video Ethnography of "ICARUS " on the Xerox Alto
 
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Recorded on December 12, 2017. ICARUS (Integrated Circuit ARtwork Utility System) was a graphical integrated circuit layout design tool created for the Xerox Alto computer in the summers of 1976 and ’77 by Doug Fairbairn and Jim Rowson at Xerox PARC. The work came out of the VLSI Systems Group at PARC that was headed by Lynn Conway in collaboration with Carver Mead of Caltech, working to develop better tools and methodologies for designing chips. Rowson was a student of Meade’s at Cal Tech and worked with Fairbairn during the two summers on ICARUS’s internal algorithms while Fairbairn developed the user interface. ICARUS’s main user interface is separated into two windows which can independently zoom into different portions of the chip. Typically, the top window was used to show a larger area of the chip while the bottom was zoomed in to a detailed view, but the windows could be used in other ways as well, such as showing the endpoints of two long lines in separate windows. Circuits are drawn with the mouse as differently patterned layers and connections, representing different physical layers and connections on the silicon chip, such as diffusion, polysilicon, metal, etc., with contacts representing vertical connection points between the layers. ICARUS is able to save portions of a circuit as a symbol to be recalled and replicated, allowing a user to build up complex libraries of sub-circuits, in a way similar to sub-routines in software. ICARUS came out at a time when circuits were still primarily designed by hand drawing on transparent sheets of mylar, and presented for the first time a fully interactive, graphical way to design circuits in a personal workstation. An ICARUS output file would then be processed by another program to create a mask for IC production. In this demonstration, Fairbairn designs a shift register cell with multiple transistors, saves it as a symbol in the library, mirrors the cell, makes 12 copies, and saves the entire design to a file. ICARUS helped promote the new Meade/Conway VLSI design methodology by managing complexity through the creation of hierarchies of symbols, which encouraged regularity of structure in chip designs. This greatly simplified chip design and verification, reducing cost and errors. ICARUS was used in the design of a number of chips at PARC, including Dick Lyon’s IC for an early optical mouse, and Jim Clark’s Geometry Engine, which helped Clark launch Silicon Graphics. This use proved the viability of VLSI design methodology, which spawned custom chip design startups such as VLSI Technology, co-founded by Fairbairn with three alumni of Fairchild Semiconductor in 1979. ICARUS became the paradigmatic template for later chip design tools, creating the new industry of electronic design automation, today dominated by Synopsys, Cadence Design Systems, and Mentor Graphics. Lot number: X8419.2018 Catalog number: 102738686
Sonar Search  ~ Fairchild Channel F
 
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The Fairchild Channel F is a home video game console released by Fairchild Semiconductor in November 1976 across North America[2] at the retail price of $169.95. It was also released in Japan in October the following year. It has the distinction of being the first programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, and the first console to use a microprocessor. It was launched as the Video Entertainment System, or VES, but when Atari released its VCS the next year, Fairchild renamed its machine. By 1977, the Fairchild Channel F had sold 250,000 units, trailing behind sales of the VCS. The Channel F electronics were designed by Jerry Lawson using the Fairchild F8 CPU, the first public outing of this processor. The F8 was very complex compared to the typical integrated circuits of the day, and had more inputs and outputs than other contemporary chips. Because chip packaging was not available with enough pins, the F8 was instead fabricated as a pair of chips that had to be used together to form a complete CPU. Lawson worked with Nick Talesfore and Ron Smith. As manager of Industrial Design, Talesfore was responsible for the design of the hand controllers, console, and video game cartridges. Smith was responsible for the mechanical engineering of the video cartridges and controllers. All worked for Wilf Corigan, head of Fairchild Semiconductor, a division of Fairchild Camera & Instrument. The graphics are quite basic by modern standards. The Channel F is only able to use one plane of graphics and one of four background colors per line, only three plot colors to choose from (red, green, and blue) that turned into white if the background is set to black. A resolution of 128 × 64 with approximately 102 × 58 pixels visible and help from only 64 bytes of system RAM, half the amount of the Atari 2600. The F8 processor at the heart of the console is able to produce enough AI to allow for player versus computer matches, a first in console history. All previous machines required a human opponent. One feature unique to this console is the 'hold' button, which allowed the player to freeze the game, change the time or change the speed of the game. In the original unit, sound is played through an internal speaker, rather than the TV set. However, the System II passed sound to the television through the RF modulator. The controllers are a joystick without a base; the main body is a large hand grip with a triangular "cap" on top, the top being the portion that actually moved for eight-way directional control. It could be used as both a joystick and paddle (twist), and not only could it be pushed down to operate as a fire button it could be pulled up as well. The model 1 unit contained a small compartment for storing the controllers when moving it. The System II featured detachable controllers and had two holders at the back to wind the cable around and to store the controller in. Zircon later offered a special control which featured an action button on the front of the joystick. It was marketed by Zircon as "Channel F Jet-Stick" in a letter sent out to registered owners before Christmas 1982. Despite the failure of the Channel F, the joystick's design was so popular—Creative Computing called it "outstanding"— that Zircon also released an Atari joystick port-compatible version, the Video Command Joystick, first released without the extra fire button. Before that, only the downwards plunge motion was connected and acted as the fire button; the pull-up and twist actions weren't connected to anything. Twenty-seven cartridges, termed 'Videocarts', were officially released to consumers in the United States during the ownership of Fairchild and Zircon, the first twenty-one of which were released by Fairchild. Several of these cartridges were capable of playing more than one game and were typically priced at $19.95. The Videocarts were yellow and approximately the size and overall texture of an 8 track cartridge. They usually featured colorful label artwork. The earlier artwork was created by nationally known artist Tom Kamifuji and art directed by Nick Talesfore.[citation needed] The console contained two built-in games, Tennis and Hockey, which were both advanced Pong clones. In Hockey the reflecting bar could be changed to diagonals by twisting the controller, and could move all over the playing field. Tennis was much like the original Pong. A sales brochure from 1978 listed 'Keyboard Videocarts' for sale. The three shown were K-1 Casino Poker, K-2 Space Odyssey, and K-3 Pro-Football. These were intended to use the Keyboard accessory. All further brochures, released after Zircon took over Fairchild, never listed this accessory nor anything called a Keyboard Videocart.
Views: 13 FunCade 64
1971 Allied Electronics - Industrial Catalog #710
 
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An archive of vintage Allied Radio & Industrial Electronics Catalogs on YouTube. Catalog pages are displayed in 1080p HD (high definition). To view text clearly, set your YouTube setting to display 1080p HD. To view the complete ALLIED RADIO & ELECTRONICS CATALOG ARCHIVE, go to: www.AlliedCatalogs.com To view the complete RADIO SHACK CATALOG ARCHIVE, go to: www.RadioShackCatalogs.com ** A BRIEF HISTORY OF ALLIED RADIO & ELECTRONICS CORPORATION ** In 1928, Allied Radio (now known as Allied Electronics) was started in Chicago, IL. In 1932, Allied was selling electronic parts by catalog. Storefront sales operations were established with the goal of selling to amateur radio operators and electronics experimenters. The company built a growing business in marketing radio parts and kits to home hobbyists, and was one of the first to sell electronics through a catalog. In addition, Allied opened storefront distribution outlets to reach more amateur ham radio operators and experimenters. During this time, Allied moved to 833 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL. From 1941-45, having survived the depression, Allied focused on the war effort, primarily servicing government contracts and high-priority industrial orders. During WWII, Allied devoted itself to the war effort by handling government contracts and high-priority industrial needs. This was Allied's first real experience in industrial electronics. After the war, Allied continued to sell to the consumer and industrial markets. From 1946-60, the electronics industry exploded as new developments in electronics were adopted on a widespread basis in commerce and industry. Innovations such as television, industrial automation, space technology and defense accelerated the need for electronics. Consumer demand also grew as radio sets and components not available during the war proliferated. Allied's main competitors were Radio Shack, Lafayette Radio, Olson Electronics, Newark Electronics, Burstein-Applebee Co., and local independent dealers (such as WinterRadio). Allied's primary house brands included "Allied", "Knight", and "Knight-Kit". In 1953, Allied Radio Corporation moves into its new, 2 million dollar building at 100 N. Western Ave, Chicago, IL. This "ultra-modern" facility was designed by experts to give their customers the best service in the industry. In 1961, Allied Radio Corporation established Allied Electronics Corporation as a wholly owned subsidiary to assume industrial sales of its small electronic components, relays, semi-conductors and the like which accounted for more than one-third of Allied's $40 million annual sales. In 1962, the first industrial catalog for Allied Electronics, a subsidiary of Allied Radio, was released. The company continued to serve both amateur and professional ham radio operators as one of the few places to locate that "hard to get" piece of radio equipment. In 1970, Allied moved its headquarters from Chicago, Illinois to Fort Worth, Texas because 1970 marked the year when Radio Shack's parent company, the Tandy Corporation (now Radio Shack Corporation) , purchased Allied Electronics and Allied Radio. In 1970, Tandy introduced combined catalogs of Allied Radio Shack stereo equipment, computers, phones, CB radios, scanners, speakers, antennas, P.A. systems, walkie-talkies, radios, electronic components, test equipment, electronic kits, & more. In 1972, the catalog is now a treasure trove for persons tracking down old components when trying to restore old professional and industrial equipment. Essex/Stancor, UTC, Switchcraft, Dialco, Arrow-Hart, Sprague, Fairchild, Robertshaw, Centralab, Belden, Sigma, Magnecraft, C. P. Clare, Amphenol, Shure, Electro-Voice, Sola, Simpson, Superior Electric, Hurst, RCA, Elmenco, ADC, H. H. Smith, are only some of the brand names represented. Interspersed with the major pro names were Micronta, Realistic, and other Radio Shack "consumer level" house brands. In 1973, due directly to federal court action, Tandy was ordered to divest itself of Allied Radio. In 1995, Allied is the first electronics distribution company to come out with a CD-ROM catalog and quickly followed-up by entering the e-commerce arena with the launch of a web site. Allied's main competitors were Radio Shack, Newark Electronics, Digi-Key, Jameco, and Mouser Electronics. Today, Allied Electronics is a small order, high service level distributor of electronic components and electromechanical products with over 50 sales offices across the United States and in Canada.
Views: 31 Allied Catalogs
Microprocessor Marketing Wars
 
59:52
[Recorded November 20, 2009] Ever since the launch of the 4004 microprocessor in 1971, AMD, IBM, Intel, MIPS, Motorola, National, Sun, Texas Instruments, Zilog and many other major corporations have fought epic marketing wars to establish their chips as the engines of choice for multiple generations of computers. There were battles over technical specifications, performance benchmarks, software architectures, RISC, 32 bits, and much more. Over the years, the fight shifted from one for hardware design engineers hearts and minds to a battle for those of the computer companies CEOs', and ultimately, for those of the consumers themselves. This combative environment drove the evolution of spec-based to brand-based microprocessor marketing. This panel discussion focuses on how the marketing of microprocessors changed as the semiconductor industry grew at unprecedented rates during the 1970s thru the 1990s. Learn about the events and the decisions that shaped the both the semiconductor and computing industries. Wonder at how annual chip marketing budgets ballooned from $100,000 to over $1Billion in less than 20 years. The panelists and moderator for this session were all protagonists in these microprocessor marketing wars at three of the major players: AMD, Intel and Motorola. - Jack Browne: Hi End Microprocessor Marketing Manager, Motorola, 1981-1992 - Dave House: Intel SVP - General Mgr, Microprocessor business, 1978-81, 1982-91 - Claude Leglise: Intel 8086-8088-286-386-486 Marketing Manager, 1982-1990 - Melissa Rey: Intel Senior Marketing Communications Manager, Intel X86 (8086 through the 386) communication programs. 1978-1988 - Moderated by David Laws: AMD (1975-1986) VP, Business Development Major funding for the CHM Salute to the Semiconductor program is generously provided by Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and Intel Corporation. Catalog Number: 102702366 Lot Number: X5595.2010
Moore's Law 40th Anniversary with Gordon Moore
 
01:27:56
[Recorded Sept 29, 2005] 2005 marks the 40th anniversary of Moore's Law, Gordon E. Moore's 1965 observation and prediction about the exponential growth in the power of semiconductor technology. Moore observed that semiconductor technology had doubled in power every year and predicted that it would continue along this developmental path. Originally named Moore's Law several years later by the physicist Carver Mead, that simple observation has proven to be the bulwark of the world's most remarkable industry. In 1975, Moore updated this to a doubling about every two years. History has thus far proven Moore's law correct, and this special conversation between Moore and Mead looks back on the past 40 years on what has made this electronics revolution possible. Catalog Number: 102695277 Lot Number: X4802.2009
Broadcom Presents Design_Code_Build Featuring Tesla's Celine Geiger
 
45:01
Broadcom Presents Design_Code_Build is an interactive STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) experience that introduces Bay Area middle school students to the basic concepts of coding and applied mathematics in order to inspire them to pursue STEM in their future education and careers. Events are supported by tech professionals who act as role models and mentors, including special keynote speakers, or "rock stars," who kick off each event by sharing their personal stories and experiences. In this Broadcom Presents Design_Code_Build the Computer History Museum welcomes Tesla’s Celine Geiger. Celine Geiger was born in Mutlangen, Germany in 1986. She received her Diploma Degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Stuttgart, in 2010. She joined Bosch in 2011 and worked at Bosch as a Reliability Engineer in the field of automotive electronics. In 2013 she started to work for Tesla and is currently working there as a Associate Manager, Design for Reliability. Her working fields at this time include test planning and test specification of electronics as well as design for reliability. Catalog Number: 102737934 Lot Number: X7233.2015
Oral History of Tim Koogle
 
03:07:05
Interviewed by Marc Weber on December 16, 2013 in Mountain View, California, X7037.2014 © Computer History Museum Tim Koogle served as founding CEO of Yahoo!, guiding the company’s growth from $0 to well over $1 billion in revenue in six years, and from a start-up venture to a publicly traded and profitable company. A Virginia native, Koogle is the son of a machinist and mechanic. He put himself through college repairing cars and tractors. He attended Stanford for his doctorate in mechanical engineering, and founded his first business around preparing Porsche engines for the race track. After Stanford he founded a company that manufactured equipment for electronic manufacturing companies, and then joined Motorola, where he rose through the management ranks. He left to join Western Atlas, an automated data collection and communications systems manufacturer located in Seattle, Washington, that had (earlier) invented bar code symbols. He then ran its subsidiary Intermec corporation. From Intermec, Koogle was recruited by Yahoo! founders David Filo and Jerry Yang as the first chief executive officer and president in March 1995, a month before the company went public. As CEO, he kept tight rein on the young company’s expenses in an era known for excess. The assets he built up let Yahoo! aggressively acquire companies as a way to expand services and fight off mounting competition. Under his leadership, the firm refined features such as personalized home pages, stock quotes, chat rooms, and free email, in addition to its core Web directory services. By 1998 Yahoo! had expanded Yahoo!'s into 14 countries, with 30 percent of its traffic coming from outside North America. Since leaving Yahoo! Koogle has been actively engaged in funding and scaling numerous early stage private companies in technology and consumer products. He invests directly and is on the Board of between three and five companies at any given time, sometimes as Chairman. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102746872 Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection.
Computer Pioneers: Pioneer Computers Part 2
 
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[Recorded: 1996] Part 2 of 2 The First Computers, 1946 - 1950 Computer pioneer Gordon Bell hosts this two-part program on the evolution of electronic computing from its pre-World War II origins through the development of the first commercial computers. His narration traces the development of the stored program computer architecture which remains the foundation of todays modern computers. In Part 1 The builders of the first five computer machines: the Bell Labs Model 1, the Zuse Z1-3, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, the Harvard Mark 1 and the IBM SSEC tell their stories. In Part 2 Vintage films and first hand accounts enliven the stories of the ENIAC and the three lines of computing machines descended from it: the Eckert-Mauchly EDVAC, BINAC and UNIVAC; Maurice Wilkes EDSAC; and John Von Neumanns IAS machines and their clones, the ILLIAC, MANIAC, etc. Catalog Number: 102645566 Lot Number: X3169.2005
Views: 137006 Computer History Museum
CHM Revolutionaries: Game Changers- Trip Hawkins with John Markoff of the New York Times
 
01:15:39
[Recorded: October 23, 2013] Trip Hawkins is a Game Changer and a Revolutionary, who considered interactive games to be a new art form and their creators, artists. He founded Electronic Arts, 3DO and Digital Chocolate. He is also a Hall of Fame game industry and digital media consultant. We are extremely pleased to welcome this gaming industry pioneer to our stage for a conversation with the New York Times' John Markoff. They'll talk about everything from his early days at Apple working for Steve Jobs, to founding Electronic Arts thirty years ago to 3DO and Digital Chocolate. He's also on the board of Extreme Reality, a 3D gesturing company. What are his thoughts about how the gaming industry has evolved, the state of gaming today and how 3D technologies may change the ways we interact with devices. Additionally, Intel Free Press conducted an interview with Hawkins after his Revolutionaries appearance, find that story here: http://www.intelfreepress.com/news/gaming-legend-trip-hawkins-says-spectacular-usability-can-open-new-markets/7244 Lot Number: X6987.2014 Catalog Number: 102746819
Computer Graphics in Games
 
02:02:36
[Recorded June 10, 2004] Video games are not only a lot of fun to play but are also a major driver of innovation in computer graphics. In this 2004 lecture, three famous game designers -- Jordan Mechner (Prince of Persia), Rand Miller (Myst), and Will Wright (SimCity) discuss how their games have pushed the boundaries of graphics development over the last several years. Moderated by Vince Broady of CNET GameSpot, the panelists show and tell how their games have helped move us from simple pixel painting to lavish 3-D simulation. The lecture includes several examples and demonstrations of past and present computer graphics development. Catalog Number: 102695316 Lot Number: X4893.2009
A 300 Mhz 115w 32b Bipolar ECL Microprocessor, lecture by Norman Jouppi
 
34:07
A 300 Mhz 115w 32b Bipolar ECL Microprocessor, a lecture by Norman Jouppi. The video was recorded in August, 1993. From University Video Communications' catalog: "A full-custom single-chip bipolar ECL RISC microprocessor was implemented in a 1.0(u)m single-poly bipolar technology. This research prototype contains a CPU and on-chip 2KB instruction and 2KB data caches. The chip verifies a new style of CAD tools developed during the design process, advanced packaging techniques for high-power microprocessors, and VLSI ECL circuit techniques." Lot number: X6636.2013 Catalog number: 102624795
An Evening with Jim Morgan of Applied Materials
 
01:10:11
[Recorded April 30, 2008] With one of the longest tenures of any FORTUNE 500 CEO, James C. Morgan, has more than three decades of experience in forging ahead in technology and global growth. Morgan has left a legacy of contributions to the Information Age, making his mark with his continuing vision and leadership. He has been the chairman of the board of Applied Materials since 1987 and served as chief executive officer for 26 years from 1977-2003. Among his many honors, he is a recipient of the National Medal of Technology for his industry leadership and for his vision in building Applied Materials into the world's leading semiconductor equipment company. He is also a recent recipient of the Spirit of Silicon Valley Lifetime Achievement Award from the Silicon Valley Leadership Group, for his ethics, community engagement and business success, and the Semiconductor Industry Association Robert N. Noyce Award, for his outstanding achievement and leadership in support of the U.S. semiconductor industry. Instrumental in the creation of the Tech Museum Awards which launched in 2000, Morgan inspired the program's James C. Morgan Global Humanitarian Award, which honors individuals whose broad vision and leadership help address humanity's greatest challenges. Past recipients have included Bill Gates and Gordon Moore. He is an advisory board member for the Center for Science, Technology, and Society at Santa Clara University, and is active with The Nature Conservancy, a global nonprofit organization which establishes nature sanctuaries, serving as a member of the board of directors, a member of its Asia-Pacific Council, and as a trustee of The Nature Conservancy of California. Catalog Number: 102695022 Lot Number: X4937.2009
Electronic relic from the 1950's or 1960's found on my attic (oscillator?)
 
02:43
Found it on my attic during a cleaning operation. I think it is from the 1950's or the 1960's, having seen the transistors (must be Germanium) and the capacitors from FACON, Italy. These capacitors were often used in tube radio's from the 1950's and 1960's. Just as the "MIAL" capacitor, found in the circuit and the typical resistors, made not spiralized but "baked" from massive resistive material. All the videos hat I have published on You Tube can be found via my Channel Trailer: Link is https://youtu.be/xbgQ8T3oqh4 In thematical order you can find these video’s under the “comments” section. My books about electronics are available via the website from “Lulu”, search for author “Ko Tilman” there. My books are also available via Barnes and Noble and via Amazon. Regarding all my video’s: I constantly keep them actual, so the original video’s with the most recent information are always on YouTube. That is the source, and search there. When my video’s are reproduced or re-edited on other websites/channels you cannot be sure about the original content (=really working electronics) and important adaptations to the circuits.
Views: 578 radiofun232
Tapeworm  ~ Atari 2600
 
00:37
The Atari 2600 (or Atari VCS before 1982) is a home video game console by Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and ROM cartridges containing game code, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F video game console in 1976. This format contrasts with the older model of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware, which could only play the games that were physically built into the unit. The console was originally sold as the Atari VCS, an abbreviation for Video Computer System. Following the release of the Atari 5200 in 1982, the VCS was renamed to the "Atari 2600", after the unit's Atari part number, CX2600. The 2600 was typically bundled with two joystick controllers, a conjoined pair of paddle controllers, and a game cartridge: initially Combat, and later Pac-Man. Ted Dabney and Nolan Bushnell developed the Atari gaming system in the 1970s. Originally operating under the name "Syzygy", Bushnell and Dabney changed the name of their company to "Atari" in 1972. In 1973, Atari Inc. had purchased an engineering think tank called Cyan Engineering to research next-generation video game systems, and had been working on a prototype known as "Stella" (named after one of the engineers' bicycles) for some time. Unlike prior generations of machines that use custom logic to play a small number of games, its core is a complete CPU, the famous MOS Technology 6502 in a cost-reduced version known as the 6507. It was combined with a RAM-and-I/O chip, the MOS Technology 6532, and a display and sound chip known as the Television Interface Adaptor (TIA). The first two versions of the machine contain a fourth chip, a standard CMOS logic buffer IC, making Stella cost-effective. Some later versions of the console eliminated the buffer chip. Programs for small computers of the time were generally stored on cassette tapes, floppy disks, or paper tape. By the early 1970s, Hewlett-Packard manufactured desktop computers costing thousands of dollars such as the HP 9830, which packaged Read Only Memory (ROM) into removable cartridges to add special programming features, and these were being considered for use in games. At first, the design was not going to be cartridge-based, but after seeing a "fake" cartridge system on another machine, they realized they could place the games on cartridges essentially for the price of the connector and packaging. In 1976, Fairchild Semiconductor released their own CPU-based system, the Video Entertainment System. Stella was still not ready for production, but it was clear that it needed to be before there were a number of "me too" products filling up the market, which had happened after they released Pong. Atari Inc. didn't have the cash flow to complete the system quickly, given that sales of their Pong systems were cooling. Nolan Bushnell eventually turned to Warner Communications, and sold the company to them in 1976 for US$28 million on the promise that Stella would be produced as soon as possible. Key to the eventual success of the machine was the hiring of Jay Miner, a chip designer who managed to squeeze an entire wire wrap of equipment making up the TIA into a single chip. Once that was completed and debugged, the system was ready for shipping. The second 2600 model is the "Light Sixer", which has lighter plastic molding and shielding, and a more angular shape, than the 1977 launch model, the "Heavy Sixer". Later 2600 models only used four front switches. The unit was originally priced at US$199 ($786 adjusted for inflation), and shipped with two joysticks and a Combat cartridge (eight additional games were available at launch and sold separately). In a move to compete directly with the Channel F, Atari Inc. named the machine the Video Computer System (or VCS for short), as the Channel F was at that point known as the VES, for Video Entertainment System. The VCS was also rebadged as the Sears Video Arcade and sold through Sears, Roebuck and Company stores. Another breakthrough for gaming systems was Atari's invention of a computer-controlled opponent, rather than the usual two-player or asymmetric challenges of the past. When Fairchild learned of Atari Inc.'s naming, they quickly changed the name of their system to become the Channel F. However, both systems were now in the midst of a vicious round of price-cutting: Pong clones that had been made obsolete by these newer and more powerful machines were sold off to discounters for ever-lower prices. Soon many of the clone companies were out of business, and both Fairchild and Atari Inc. were selling to a public that was completely burnt out on Pong. In 1977, Atari Inc. sold 250,000 Video Computer Systems.
Views: 3 FunCade 64
The Texas Chainsaw Massacre  ~ Atari 2600
 
00:37
The Atari 2600 (or Atari VCS before 1982) is a home video game console by Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and ROM cartridges containing game code, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F video game console in 1976. This format contrasts with the older model of having non-microprocessor dedicated hardware, which could only play the games that were physically built into the unit. The console was originally sold as the Atari VCS, an abbreviation for Video Computer System. Following the release of the Atari 5200 in 1982, the VCS was renamed to the "Atari 2600", after the unit's Atari part number, CX2600. The 2600 was typically bundled with two joystick controllers, a conjoined pair of paddle controllers, and a game cartridge: initially Combat, and later Pac-Man. Ted Dabney and Nolan Bushnell developed the Atari gaming system in the 1970s. Originally operating under the name "Syzygy", Bushnell and Dabney changed the name of their company to "Atari" in 1972. In 1973, Atari Inc. had purchased an engineering think tank called Cyan Engineering to research next-generation video game systems, and had been working on a prototype known as "Stella" (named after one of the engineers' bicycles) for some time. Unlike prior generations of machines that use custom logic to play a small number of games, its core is a complete CPU, the famous MOS Technology 6502 in a cost-reduced version known as the 6507. It was combined with a RAM-and-I/O chip, the MOS Technology 6532, and a display and sound chip known as the Television Interface Adaptor (TIA). The first two versions of the machine contain a fourth chip, a standard CMOS logic buffer IC, making Stella cost-effective. Some later versions of the console eliminated the buffer chip. Programs for small computers of the time were generally stored on cassette tapes, floppy disks, or paper tape. By the early 1970s, Hewlett-Packard manufactured desktop computers costing thousands of dollars such as the HP 9830, which packaged Read Only Memory (ROM) into removable cartridges to add special programming features, and these were being considered for use in games. At first, the design was not going to be cartridge-based, but after seeing a "fake" cartridge system on another machine, they realized they could place the games on cartridges essentially for the price of the connector and packaging. In 1976, Fairchild Semiconductor released their own CPU-based system, the Video Entertainment System. Stella was still not ready for production, but it was clear that it needed to be before there were a number of "me too" products filling up the market, which had happened after they released Pong. Atari Inc. didn't have the cash flow to complete the system quickly, given that sales of their Pong systems were cooling. Nolan Bushnell eventually turned to Warner Communications, and sold the company to them in 1976 for US$28 million on the promise that Stella would be produced as soon as possible. Key to the eventual success of the machine was the hiring of Jay Miner, a chip designer who managed to squeeze an entire wire wrap of equipment making up the TIA into a single chip. Once that was completed and debugged, the system was ready for shipping. The second 2600 model is the "Light Sixer", which has lighter plastic molding and shielding, and a more angular shape, than the 1977 launch model, the "Heavy Sixer". Later 2600 models only used four front switches. The unit was originally priced at US$199 ($786 adjusted for inflation), and shipped with two joysticks and a Combat cartridge (eight additional games were available at launch and sold separately). In a move to compete directly with the Channel F, Atari Inc. named the machine the Video Computer System (or VCS for short), as the Channel F was at that point known as the VES, for Video Entertainment System. The VCS was also rebadged as the Sears Video Arcade and sold through Sears, Roebuck and Company stores. Another breakthrough for gaming systems was Atari's invention of a computer-controlled opponent, rather than the usual two-player or asymmetric challenges of the past. When Fairchild learned of Atari Inc.'s naming, they quickly changed the name of their system to become the Channel F. However, both systems were now in the midst of a vicious round of price-cutting: Pong clones that had been made obsolete by these newer and more powerful machines were sold off to discounters for ever-lower prices. Soon many of the clone companies were out of business, and both Fairchild and Atari Inc. were selling to a public that was completely burnt out on Pong. In 1977, Atari Inc. sold 250,000 Video Computer Systems.
Views: 2 FunCade 64
Computer Pioneers: Pioneer Computers Part 1
 
53:26
[Recorded: 1996] Part 1 of 2 The Dawn of Electronic Computing 1935 1945 Computer pioneer Gordon Bell hosts this two-part program on the evolution of electronic computing from its pre-World War II origins through the development of the first commercial computers. His narration traces the development of the stored program computer architecture which remains the foundation of todays modern computers. In Part 1 The builders of the first five computer machines: the Bell Labs Model 1, the Zuse Z1-3, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, the Harvard Mark 1 and the IBM SSEC tell their stories. Catalog Number: 102645565 Lot Number: X3169.2005
Views: 372413 Computer History Museum
Oral History of Adele Goldberg
 
01:33:47
Interviewed by John Mashey on May 10, 2010, in Mountain View, California, X5823.2010 © Computer History Museum Adele Goldberg reflects on her life and career from her early days at the University of Chicago and Stanford University through her career at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) and ParcPlace Systems. * Note: Transcripts represent what was said in the interview. However, to enhance meaning or add clarification, interviewees have the opportunity to modify this text afterward. This may result in discrepancies between the transcript and the video. Please refer to the transcript for further information - http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102701984. Visit computerhistory.org/collections/oralhistories/ for more information about the Computer History Museum's Oral History Collection.
Technology Computer Retailing
 
01:43:08
[Recorded Nov 2, 2006] How did the migration from the small, niche computer retail outlet evolve to the big box stores and online experience as we know it today revolutionize the commercial computing industry at large? How did this dynamic change the face of distribution and what now lies ahead? The Computer History Museum hosted this lively panel discussion titled, "Crucial Crossroads: Technology X Retailing," featuring computer industry retail veterans Kathy Kolder, co-founder and executive vice president, Fry's Electronics; Seymour Merrin, founder of ComputerWorks (1978); Ellen Miller, acting executive vice president and chief marketing officer, CompUSA; and Steve Schiro, Microsoft corporate vice president, Home & Retail Division and vice president retail, Americas, Worldwide Retail Services & GTM's along with moderator Keith Newman. Catalog Number: 102706119 Lot Number: X4929.2009
DEC: Personal Challenge, 25th Anniversary Video
 
36:52
[Recorded: 1982] This corporate documentary produced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) chronicles DECs two year odyssey to bring three personal computers, the Professional 325 (PRO-325), the Professional 350 (PRO-350), and the Rainbow 100 to market a year after IBM launched their personal computer. DEC's strategy was driven by the fear was that if they did not immediately create a successful product that the Japanese who were already producing low cost IBM PC compatibles would capture the market. The narrative follows the challenges of the CT Program Group - Avram Miller (project manager), Michael Weinstein (merchandising), Ron Ham (software), Art Williams (hardware), and Vah Erdekian (manufacturing), as they race to develop a personal computer to show at the June 1982 National Computer Conference in Houston, Texas. This film traces the project from its conception through the design and manufacturing process and documents the intellectual and engineering challenges inherent in creating a new technology product. Gordon Bell sums up this challenge when he says, What we are trying to do with computers is to make a machine that is in fact so good that it can be an intellectual companion with humans. DEC's goal was to build from scratch a personal computer business that would create over 120,000 personal computer small systems the first year of production, and that by 1985 would be worth $3.5 billion. Digital Equipment Corporation was founded in 1957 by Ken Olsen and Harlan Anderson. The video briefly traces Digitals technological history beginning with their first computer the PDP-1; the PDP-6, a timesharing computer created by four engineers including Gordon Bell; the PDP-8, the worlds first minicomputer through the PDP-11 a series of 16-bit minicomputers that sold from 1970 until the 1990s. The documentary describes Digital as the 2nd largest computer company with 68,000 employees, working in 39 countries across five continents. Digital was the leader of mini-computers controlling 38% of the market. Catalog Number: 102695345 Lot Number: X5489.2010
Man and Computer : A Perspective
 
22:41
The film Man & Computer, made in 1967 by IBM's UK branch, provides a basic understanding of computer operations. A large portion of the film shows the ways in which a computer can be simulated by five people using the standard office equipment of the day. The film employs a number of different techniques, including animations, and features a few brief scenes of an IBM System/360 in use—just months after the first machines were delivered. Starting in the 1940s, IBM became a major producer of films used for sales, training, documenting business processes, entertaining at company functions, and educating the public. Several IBM films were made by respected filmmakers and sometimes featured well-known actors. Catalog Number: 102702984 Lot Number: X3604.2006
Views: 154293 Computer History Museum
LM1458 fading LED pair
 
00:29
Will one day be a pair of glowing eyes. Using this schematic: http://www.bowdenshobbycircuits.info/fade_led.htm
Views: 7656 jcn37203
CUI Inc NDM2Z Series Digital Dc-Dc POL Modules
 
02:11
CUI Inc Senior Vice President Mark Adams provides an overview of the company's NDM2Z series of digital dc-dc point-of-load (POL) modules. Available in 12, 25, and 50 A versions, the Novum® Advanced Power modules are high performance devices designed to meet the needs of the most demanding intermediate bus power systems. For more information visit: http://www.cui.com/Catalog/Power/Novum%C2%AE_Advanced_Power/Digital_POL
Views: 119 Design World

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